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Solar cells capture the sun's energy and change it to electricity. Inside a solar panel, each cell contains silicon, an element found in sand that absorbs sunlight. The energy in this absorbed light produces a small electrical current. Metal grids around the solar cells direct the currents into wires that lead to the power controls.
The solar array is comprised of one or more solar PV modules (solar panels) which convert sunlight into clean solar electricity. PV is short for Photo voltaic, which means electricity from light. The solar modules need to be mounted facing the sun and avoiding shade for best results.
The main function of a charge controller is to prevent over charging the batteries, as well as keeping electrical storage in the batteries from discharging to the solar modules at night
The batteries store the solar power generated and discharge the power as needed. The battery bank consists of one or more solar deep-cycle type batteries. Depending on the current and voltages for certain applications the batteries are wired in series and/or parallel.
The Inverter changes the DC current stored in the batteries into usable AC current which is the most common type used by most household appliances and lighting.
Selecting the correct size and type of wire will enhance the performance and reliability of your system. The size of the wire must be large enough to carry the maximum current expected without undue voltage losses.
The appliances and devices (such as TV's, computers, lights, water pumps etc.) that consume electrical power are called loads.
, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar radiation, along with secondary solar-powered resources such as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity and biomass, account for most of the available renewable energy on earth. Only a minuscule fraction of the available solar energy is used.
Solar powered electrical generation relies on heat engines and photovoltaics. Solar energy's uses are limited only by human ingenuity. A partial list of solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, potable water via distillation and disinfection, daylighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes.To harvest the solar energy, the most common way is to use solar panels.
Solar technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic panels and solar thermal collectors to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. from Wikipedia